In addition, the analysis of cost-benefit of this database showed that the benefit is much higher than cost. This book may be useful in the daily practice for obstetricians, paediatricians, general practitioners and epidemiologists, moreover it could be used in the training programmes of medical students and residents as well.
Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Front Matter Pages i-xxii. Front Matter Pages Pages Certain Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. Diseases of the Blood and Blood-Forming Organs. Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases. Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Diseases of the Nervous System. Diseases of the Eye and Adnexa. Diseases of the Ear and the Mastoid Process. Diseases of the Circulatory System. Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Diseases of the Digestive System. Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue. For example, if you have a personal or family history of birth defects, genetic counseling and testing may be recommended.
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Prenatal vitamin supplements contain the recommended amounts of the vitamins and minerals you will need during your pregnancy, such as vitamins A, C, and D; folic acid ; and minerals such as iron. Taking micrograms of folic acid daily for at least 1 month before pregnancy and during pregnancy helps prevent major birth defects called neural tube defects.
These are defects of the brain and spine of the fetus.
Evaluation of maternal infusion therapy during pregnancy for fetal development
A few medications have been linked to birth defects. You should tell anyone who prescribes drugs for you that you are pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant. This includes doctors you may see for dental care, mental health, or other nonpregnancy problems. Also, check with your ob-gyn or other health care professional before taking any over-the-counter drug, such as pain relievers, laxatives, cold or allergy remedies, vitamins, herbal products, and skin treatments. Women who are obese defined as having a body mass index [BMI] of 30 or greater when they get pregnant have an increased risk of having babies with certain birth defects than women who are a normal weight.
Among the most common obesity-related birth defects are neural tube defects, heart defects, and cleft palate. If you are planning a pregnancy, the best way to prevent problems caused by obesity is to be at a normal weight before you get pregnant. Some medical conditions—such as diabetes , high blood pressure, and seizure disorders—may increase the risk of having a baby with certain birth defects.
If you have a medical condition, see your ob-gyn or other health care professional to discuss any changes you need to make in your diet, medication, or other areas to bring the condition under control before you try to get pregnant. Alcohol can interfere with the normal growth of the fetus and cause birth defects. When a woman drinks during pregnancy, her fetus can develop physical, intellectual, behavioral, and learning disabilities that can last a lifetime.
It is best not to drink at all during pregnancy. If it is hard for you to stop drinking, talk with your ob-gyn or other health care professional or contact Alcoholics Anonymous on its website: www. Using substances—including heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and prescription drugs taken for a nonmedical reason—is a widespread problem in the United States.
Using illegal drugs early in pregnancy can cause birth defects and miscarriage. During the later weeks of pregnancy, illegal drugs can interfere with the growth of the fetus and cause preterm birth and fetal death. Infants born to women who used illegal drugs during pregnancy may need specialized care after birth. If you need help quitting illegal drugs, you can find resources at the website of Narcotics Anonymous: www. Recreational marijuana used during pregnancy is associated with attention and behavioral problems in children.
Things to avoid during pregnancy: Teratogens
Medical marijuana also should be avoided. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant not use any form of marijuana. You and your ob-gyn or other health care professional can discuss alternative treatments that will be safe for your fetus.
Opioids —also called narcotics—are a type of medication that relieves pain. Doctors may prescribe opioids for people who have had surgery, dental work, or an injury. Prescribed opioids include oxycodone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and codeine. It is important to take the medication only as prescribed.
Most people who use a prescription opioid have no trouble stopping their use, but some people develop an addiction. Misusing opioids during pregnancy can increase the risk of serious complications, including preterm birth, stillbirth, and problems with the placenta and fetal growth. Some infections can increase the risk of birth defects and other problems during pregnancy for you and your growing fetus:. Body Mass Index BMI : A number calculated from height and weight that is used to determine whether a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese.