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Can ethics be demonstrated with mathematical certainty?

Series: Brill's Studies in Intellectual History

Van Bunge draws an interesting comparison with Locke, who in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding raises the possibility of such a scientific morality. Moreover, addressing the question of whether a scientific morality must be rendered in a Euclidean format, Van Bunge agrees that it need not, but that Spinoza's preference for such a mode of presentation is perfectly justified, given the causal determinism at the heart of his philosophy.

In "Spinoza and the Collegiants," Van Bunge turns to more historical matters, and examines the importance for Spinoza of his acquaintance with Collegiant personalities and ideas. He argues that what Spinoza learned from this dissenting Dutch sect was not so much theological but political. It was their emphasis on toleration, freedom, and equality that influenced Spinoza's own defense of those values and preference for democracy in his political writings.

The chapter "Causation and Intelligibility in the TTP" considers the contentious issue of religious "truths" by looking at the agreement between Spinoza's account of Scripture in the Theological-Political Treatise and the moral lessons of the Ethics. There are twelve chapters in the book, and I will not summarize all of them here. But I, for one, especially enjoyed reading the last few essays, since they covered material with which even the most seasoned Spinoza scholars outside of the Netherlands and without a reading knowledge of Dutch might not be familiar: the development and stages of Spinozism and Spinoza scholarship in the Netherlands and in Europe, extending from repression of Spinoza's works in the seventeenth century "Censorship of Philosophy in the 17 th Century Dutch Republic" to the emergence of Spinoza studies as a major academic discipline in the twentieth century.

In a critical discussion of the so-called "radical Enlightenment," and especially Jonathan Israel's volumes on the topic, Van Bunge questions, on good historical evidence, the notion of a single, coherent "Spinozism" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

There were, to be sure, anti-religious, libertine, and atheistic elements inspired by Spinoza within the radical branch of the Enlightenment, but there were also, as Van Bunge shows in the chapter "Radical Enlightenment: A Dutch Perspective," less anti-religious, more pious segments hoping to reconcile faith with reason. Not even the Spinozistic camp of the radical Enlightenment was a uniformly secularizing movement committed to the denial of the validity of revealed religion. Perhaps we are best advised to regard 'Spinozism' as a common denominator of several historical 'projects'" Van Bunge offers a convincing discussion of the consilience of the "morality" of the Ethics and the "true faith" a religious faith of the Theological-Political Treatise.

Both are summed up in the ethical dictum to "love thy neighbor. For Van Bunge, Spinoza remains an essentially and sincerely religious, if unorthodox, thinker.

It is worth noting, too, that Van Bunge sees great relevance in the debate over the meaning of the Enlightenment for contemporary Dutch and European society and politics, and begins his treatment of this topic with a discussion of recent events and controversies involving Pim Fortuyn a right-wing, anti-immigration politician who was assassinated by an environmental activist , Theo van Gogh a provocateur filmmaker who was gruesomely assassinated by a Muslim extremist , and Ayaan Hirsi Ali a prominent feminist critic of Islamic fundamentalism.

Among the final chapters of the book is a critical survey of the development of Spinozism in the Netherlands in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries "Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Dutch Spinozism" and modern and recent trends in Spinoza scholarship, especially in Europe "Spinoza Past and Present". Pages: 82— Pages: 91— Pages: 95— Pages: — Biographical Note Han J.

He has published extensively on the work of Samuel Beckett. Martin Wilson is a writer and publisher. His most recent work was an English translation of the Metaphysics of Arnold Geulincx Was sie verbindet, ist weder die Tugend noch der Gottesbegriff, sondern die Suche nach einer Rechtfertigung der Lebensbejahung. Its reputation during the 20th century has been largely attributable to Samuel Beckett's fascination with it and the radical Cartesian "Occasionalists" generally.

This thoughtful, timely translation includes most of Beckett's manuscript notes to Geulincx. Most impressive in Ethics is the unique mode of speculative writing that Geulincx invents to argue and exemplify his experience of what might be called an ethics of non-knowledge. A brilliant volume.

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It is also clear, however, that as these ideas spread, opposition to them increased. It was no longer the acceptability of Cartesianism that was at stake. Many thought that the very foundations of church and state were being undermined by the diffusion and acceptance among large numbers of people of a radically different world-view. Siebrand, Spinoza and the Netherlanders. Een Rotterdamse collegiant in de ban van Spinoza. Philipsland, Pontiaan van Hattem , had been removed from office. We must be felt to be nothing, while God becomes our all. When we have reached this level of understanding, the concepts of good and evil, sin and retribution lose their meaning, since they have no existence in God.

The true church consists of all those who have been united with God.

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For them, neither finite reason nor the literal meaning of Scripture can be used to settle matters in religious disputes. Van Hattem therefore pleaded for the abolition of all instruments of con- fessionalism, such as synods and orders, and for complete tolerance.

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Even this short summary should make it evident that Van Hattem shared certain important conceptions with Spinoza. On his life and career, see W. On Van Hattem and Spinoza, see G. The recent article by A. See also W. Schroder, Spinoza in der deutschen Friihaujkldrung Wiirzburg, , p. Despite his tendency towards a pantheistic view, therefore, Van Hattem stayed close to the traditional conception of a personal God, while Spinoza, although using orthodox words, identified God with Nature.

Since salvation or peace of mind is the ultimate object of both thinkers, despite their differing as to the means of obtaining it, it might be worth asking whether Spinozistic ideas could have found their way into Reformed Christianity in the wake of this Hattemistic critique of established church doctrine. But did Van Hattem or his followers accept other, more fundamental Spinozistic ideas? Did Hattemism, as its orthodox opponents claimed, give way in the end to outright Spinozism? On Booms see also A. Once again, however, Tuinman comes to our rescue, quoting fully from the minutes of the consistory meetings, dozens of which were devoted entirely to searching out the heretical opinions of Booms and his followers.

Wederandwoord aan Theophilus Altena, ; Marinus Booms, Apologie of Verandwoording: zijnde een waarachtig verhaal van de proceduren der Consistorie van Middelburg, met alle de stukken, zo Beschuldigingen als Andwoorden, daar toe behoorende S. He never published much, but copies of his manuscripts circulated among his followers. Although he was accused of heresy early on, it seems that he was not in fact accused of Spinozism until , when this charge was levelled at him by Willem Spandaw, pastor of Oudelande on the island of Zuid-Beveland.

After settling in Middelburg some time before , Booms soon became known as a Hattemist. After a number of years, new charges were brought against him, but the matter was not decided until November 1st, , when he was officially charged with both Hattemism and Spinozism. Since he was both unable and unwilling to answer these charges, he was deemed an apostate from the Reformed Church on January 31st, , and excommunicated on May 27th.

The excommunication took place after he and one of his followers had been banned from the town by the magistrate March 31st. In the meantime, in February , another Reformed pastor had been deposed and exiled because of his Hattemistic heresies—he was 8 W. Spandaw, De bedekte Spinosist ontdekt in de persoon van P. As in the case of Van Hattem, the dismissal of Buitendijk made things even worse for the church. He and Booms became close friends, and together they made many converts to Hattemism. He was banished from all these towns, and eventually he and Buitendijk settled down and lived quietly in Breda for a number of years.

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When we consider these facts, it need cause no surprise that the Reformed Church was gripped during these years by a sort of Hattemistic panic. Unable to stop the spread of these heresies by persuasion and argument, it turned to the authorities to check them by force. During , no less than five requests were made to the States of Zeeland, asking for a ban to be enforced on both the meetings and the writings of the Hattemists.

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The Hattemist Steven Kloet, a friend of Booms, was put in jail for three years for maintaining, 9 Twee remonstrantieriy door de E. Kloet had also, clearly, identified the God of the Church with the devil. After his release he went to Bergen op Zoom, where he seems to have continued making converts to Hattemism.

At a meeting of the Middelburg consistory in , for example, when he was pressed to reject Spinozism openly, Booms is reported to have made the following statement: He said he had read Spinoza fourteen years ago, in particular three chapters of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, the Ethics and three other 11 See also M.

Voorgeschiedenis, verloop en achtergronden van de politieke twisten in Zeeland en vooral Middelburg tussen en Groningen, Spinoza denied the resurrection of the dead; 3. He was of the opinion that these three things alone in Spinoza were relevant to religion, and he was unable to make mention of anything else. He took much pleasure in reading the Ethics of Spinoza, the treatment of the passions of hate, love, wrath, sadness, fear etc. How was it that he came to read them?

At a number of meetings at the mill, Dr. Bliek, who at that time was reported to be a Spinozist himself, seems to have explained the principles of Spinozism to his pupil Booms, who, as we have seen, had by then already been accused of Hattemism, although not of Spinozism. Almost nothing is known about this Dr.